More Genghis Khan / Mongol History ArticlesEstablishment Of The Empire
The War With The Sultan
Pastoral Life In Asia
Death Of The Sultan
Temujin In Exile
The Fall Of Bokhara
The Death Of Vang Khan
The Sultan Mohammed
Rupture With Vang Khan
The Death Of Yemuka
Conquests In China
Dominions Of Genghis Khan
Adventures Of Prince Kushluk
The First Battle
The great hunting party.--Object of the hunt.--The general plan.--The
time arrives.--Orders.--Progress of the operations.--Terror of the
animals.--The inner circle.--Condition of the beasts.--The princes
enter the ring.--Intimidation of the wild beasts.--They recover their
ferocity when attacked.--The slaughter.--Petition of the young
men.--End of the hunt.--The assembly at Toukat.--Return of Genghis
Khan's sons.--Present of horses.--The khans arrive.--Grand
entertainment.--Drinks.--Great extent of the encampment.--Laying
out the encampment.--The state tent.--The throne.--Business
transacted.--Leave-taking.--The assembly is dismissed.
When Genghis Khan found that his conquests in Western Asia were in
some good degree established and confirmed, he illustrated his victory
and the consequent extension of his empire by two very imposing
celebrations. The first was a grand hunt. The second was a solemn
convocation of all the estates of his immense realm in a sort of diet
or deliberative assembly.
The accounts given by the historians of both these celebrations are
doubtless greatly exaggerated. Their description of the hunt is as
It was after the close of the campaign in 1221 that it took place,
while the army were in winter quarters. The object of the hunt was to
keep the soldiers occupied, so as to avoid the relaxation of
discipline, and the vices and disorder which generally creep into a
camp where there are no active occupations to engage the minds of the
men. The hunt took place in a vast region of uninhabited country,
which was infested with wild beasts of every kind. The soldiers were
marched out on this expedition in order of war, as if it were a
country occupied by armed men that they were going to attack. The
different detachments were conducted to the different points in the
outskirts of the country, from which they severally extended
themselves to the right and left, so as completely to inclose the
ground. And the space was so large, it is said, which was thus
inclosed, that it took them several weeks to march in to the centre.
It is true that in such a case the men would advance very slowly,
perhaps only a few miles each day, in order that they might examine
the ground thoroughly, and leave no ravine, or thicket, or other
lurking-place, where beasts might conceal themselves, unexplored.
Still, the circle was doubtless immensely large.
When the appointed morning at length arrived, the men at the several
stations were arrayed, and they commenced their advance toward the
centre, moving to the sound of trumpets, drums, timbrels, and other
such instruments of martial music as were in use in those days.
The men were strictly forbidden to kill any animal. They were only to
start them out from their lurking-places and lairs, and drive them in
toward the centre of the field.
Great numbers of the men were provided with picks, spades, and other
similar tools, with which they were to dig out the burrows and holes
of such animals as should seek refuge under ground.
They went on in this way for some weeks. The animals ran before them,
thinking, when they were disturbed by the men, that it was only a
momentary danger, which they could easily escape from, as usual, by
running forward into the next thicket; but soon the advancing line of
the soldiers reached them there, and drove them out again, and if they
attempted to turn to the right or the left they soon found themselves
intercepted. Thus, as the circle grew narrower, and the space inclosed
diminished, the animals began to find themselves mixing with one
another in great numbers, and being now irritated and angry, they
attacked one another in many instances, the strong falling upon and
killing the weak. Thus a great many were killed, though not by the
hands of the soldiers.
At last the numbers became so great, and the excitement and terror of
the animals so intense, that the soldiers had great difficulty in
driving them forward. The poor beasts ran this way and that, half
distracted, while the soldiers pressed steadily on behind them, and
cut them off from every chance of escape by raising terrific shouts
and outcries, and by brandishing weapons before them wherever they
attempted to turn.
At length the animals were all driven in to the inner circle, a
comparatively small space, which had been previously marked out.
Around this space double and triple lines of troops were drawn up,
armed with pikes and spears, which they pointed in toward the centre,
thus forming a sort of wall by which the beasts were closely shut in.
The plan was now for the officers and khans, and all the great
personages of the court and the army, to go into the circle, and show
their courage and their prowess by attacking the beasts and slaying
But the courage required for such an exploit was not so great as it
might seem, for it was always found on these occasions that the
beasts, though they had been very wild and ferocious when first
aroused from their lairs, and had appeared excessively irritated when
they found the circle beginning to narrow around them, ended at last
in losing all their spirit, and in becoming discouraged, dejected,
and tame. This was owing partly, perhaps, to their having become, in
some degree, familiar with the sight of men, but more probably to the
exhaustion produced by long-continued fatigue and excitement, and to
their having been for so many days deprived in a great degree of their
accustomed food and rest.
Thus in this, as in a great many other similar instances, the poor
soldiers and common people incurred the danger and the toil, and then
the great men came in at the end to reap the glory.
Genghis Khan himself was the first to enter the circle for the purpose
of attacking the beasts. He was followed by the princes of his family,
and by other great chieftains and khans. As they went in, the whole
army surrounded the inclosure, and completely filled the air with the
sound of drums, timbrels, trumpets, and other such instruments, and
with the noise of the most terrific shouts and outcries which they
could make, in order to terrify and overawe the beasts as much as
possible, and to destroy in them all thought and hope of resistance.
And, indeed, so much effect was produced by these means of
intimidation, that the beasts, it is said, became completely
stupefied. "They were so affrighted that they lost all their
fierceness. The lions and tigers became as tame as lambs, and the
bears and wild boars, like the most timorous creatures, became
dejected and amazed."
Still, the going in of Genghis Khan and the princes to attack them was
not wholly without danger; for, of course, it was a point of honor
with them to select the most ferocious and fierce of the animals, and
some of these, when they found themselves actually assailed, were
aroused again, and, recovering in some degree their native ferocity,
seemed impelled to make a last desperate effort to defend themselves.
After killing a few of the lions, tigers, and bears, Genghis Khan and
his immediate suite retired to a place at one side of the inclosure,
where a throne had been set up for the emperor on an eminence which
afforded a good view of the field. Here Genghis Khan took his seat in
order to enjoy the spectacle of the slaughter, and then an immense
number of men were allowed to go in and amuse themselves with killing
and destroying the poor beasts till they were perfectly satiated with
the sight of blood and of suffering.
At last some of the khan's grandsons, attended by several other young
princes, approached the throne where the emperor was seated, and
petitioned him to order the carnage to cease, and to allow the rest of
the animals to go free. This petition the emperor granted. The lines
were broken up, the animals that had escaped being massacred made
their way back into the wilds again, and the hunt was over.
The several detachments of the army then set out on their march back
to the camp again. But so great was the scale on which this grand
hunting expedition was conducted, that four months elapsed between the
time of their setting out upon it till the time of their return.
* * * * *
The grand diet or general assembly of the states of Genghis Khan's
empire took place two or three years later, when the conquest of
Western Asia was complete, and the sons of the emperor and all the
great generals could be called together at the emperor's head-quarters
without much danger. The place chosen for this assembly was a vast
plain in the vicinity of the city of Toukat, which has already been
mentioned as one of the great cities conquered by Genghis Khan. Toukat
lay in a central and convenient position for the purpose of this
assembly. It was, moreover, a rich and beautiful city, and could
furnish all that would be necessary for the wants of the assembly.
The meeting, however, was not to be held in the city itself, but upon
a great plain in the environs of it, where there was space for all the
khans, with their numerous retinues, to pitch their tents.
When the khans and chieftains began to assemble, there came first the
sons of the king, returning from the various expeditions on which
their father had sent them, and bringing with them magnificent
presents. These presents, of course, consisted of the treasures and
other valuables which they had taken in plunder from the various
cities which had fallen into their hands. The presents which Jughi
brought exceeded in value those of all the others. Among the rest,
there was a herd of horses one hundred thousand in number. These
horses had, of course, been seized in the pastures of the conquered
countries, and were now brought to the emperor to be used by him in
mounting his troops. They were arrayed in bands according to the
color, white, dappled gray, bay, black, and spotted, of each kind an
The emperor received and welcomed his sons with great joy, and readily
accepted their presents. In return, he made presents to them from his
After this, as other princes and khans came in, and encamped with
their troops and followers on the plain, the emperor entertained them
all with a series of grand banquets and public diversions of all
sorts. Among other things a grand hunting party was organized,
somewhat similar in the general plan to the one already described,
only on a much smaller scale, of course, in respect to the number of
persons engaged and the time occupied, while yet it greatly surpassed
that one in magnificence and splendor. Several thousand beasts were
slain, it is said, and a great number and variety of birds, which were
taken by the falcons.
At the end of the hunt a great banquet was given, which surpassed all
the other feasts in munificence. They had on the tables of this
banquet a great variety of drinks--not only rich wines from the
southern countries, but beer, and metheglin, and also sherbet, which
the army had learned to make in Persia.
In the mean time, the great space on the plain, which had been set
apart for the encampment, had been gradually becoming filled up by the
arrival of the khans, until at length, in every direction, as far as
the eye could reach, the whole plain was covered with groups of tents
and long lines of movable houses, brought on wheels. The ground which
the encampment covered was said by the historians to have been seven
leagues in extent. If the space occupied was any thing at all
approaching this magnitude, it could only be that the outer portions
of it were occupied by the herdsmen and other servants of the khans,
who had to take care of the cattle and horses of the troops, and to
provide them with suitable pasture. Indeed, the great number of
animals which these wandering tribes always took with them on their
journeys rendered it necessary to appropriate a much larger space to
their encampments than would have been otherwise required.
It is surprising to us, who are accustomed to look upon living in
tents as so exclusively an irregular and temporary expedient, to learn
how completely this mode of life was reduced to a system in those
days, and how perfect and complete all the arrangements relating to it
were made. In this case, in the centre of the encampment, a space of
two leagues in length was regularly laid out in streets, squares, and
market-places, like a town. Here were the emperor's quarters, with
magnificent tents for himself and his immediate household, and
multitudes of others of a plainer character for his servants and
retainers. The tents of the other grand khans were near. They were
made of rich materials, and ornamented in a sumptuous manner, and
silken streamers of various colors floated in the wind from the
summits of them.
Besides these there was an immense tent, built for the assembly itself
to hold its sessions in. This tent was so large, it is said, that it
would contain two thousand persons. It was covered with white, which
made it very conspicuous. There were two entrance-gates leading to the
interior. One of them was called the imperial gate, and was for the
use of Genghis Khan alone. The other was the public gate, and was used
in general for the members of the assembly and for spectators.
Within the tent was erected a magnificent throne, intended for the use
of the emperor during the sessions of the assembly.
A great amount of important business was transacted by the assembly
while it continued in session, and many important edicts were made by
the emperor. The constitution and laws of the empire were promulgated
anew, and all necessary arrangements made for the government of the
various provinces both near and remote.
At length, when these various objects had been accomplished, and the
business was concluded, the emperor gave audience individually to all
the princes, khans, generals, governors of provinces, and other grand
dignitaries who were present on the occasion, in order that they might
take their leave preparatory to returning to their several countries.
When this ceremony was concluded the encampment was broken up, and the
various khans set off, each at the head of his own caravan, on the
road leading to his own home.
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